German-speaking Exiles in the Performing Arts in Britain after 1933

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After his return to Germany, Hirsch was given back his German citizenship, although he retained his Turkish passport until his death. Similarly, Hirsch played a significant role in creating and modernizing laws such as the Commercial Code of , the Law on Intellectual and Artistic Property Turkish Copyright Law of and the University Law of However, we can say with certainty that he contributed immensely to the formation of Turkish legal terminology.

A new Turkish specialist language was needed in almost every discipline. In a article, Gleissberg explains how, with the help of his Turkish colleagues, he chose words from Turkish vocabulary for terms that were lacking; in some cases he had to invent new words from Turkish roots and was glad to see that these terms were then established in the Turkish language qtd. Fritz Arndt was another of the German professors who contributed greatly to the development of scientific terminology in Turkish.

Clearly, many professors were involved in various activities concerning the reform and enrichment of the language. The establishment of these terms was ensured through the continued use of the translated textbooks in Turkish universities. Some were also actively engaged in the translation of literary works. After his return to Germany in , Rohde became the first professor of classical philology at the Free University in Berlin, where he taught until his death in In Ankara he founded the Institute of Classical Philology and taught there from until Rohde also contributed to various other translations from Greek and Latin, either by writing prefaces or revising the texts and footnotes.

She underlined the difficulties concerning the language: It was difficult to accomplish the translations in a period when the Turkish language itself was in total upheaval, the Arabic words were to be eliminated and Turkish words were being created, sometimes quite arbitrarily. And it was also a time when from one day to the next, the names of the months were abolished and replaced by new ones.

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That happened often, and you would find out from the newspaper. Hirsch was one of these, and was very interested in the translation of classics.


Working on the text, Hirsch not only discussed issues related to law, but also addressed the problems encountered in translation by analysing every phrase in the original, Turkish and other European languages. Unfortu- nately, we do not know if Hirsch had any involvement in subsequent editions of these translations.

The State Conservatoire was also in close contact with the Translation Bureau, which produced librettos and theatre plays as well as literary works in book form. Only one of these plays was Turkish; all the others were translations Berk , In the first months of his stay in Ankara, Georg Rohde had serious difficulty finding a good interpreter for his classes because nobody seemed to know Greek and Latin in addition to German. In one instance, one of his interpreters thought the Greek word enklitika [enclitic] was angelica [angelically] and translated it as such Erhat , It may, though, have been a useful mode of training for these scholars and translators: Azra Erhat, for example, later became a prominent translator of Greek literature.

The fact that so few German-speaking professors lectured in Turkish attracted heavy criticism from their Turkish colleagues. A memorandum from the United States Embassy in Istanbul to the State Department noted that the Turkish students did not generally understand German, but both those who do and those who do not often find that the subject matter of the lectures is made clearer when the professor speaks in German and has his remarks translated into Turkish by an expert interpreter than when he speaks Downloaded By: [Berk Albachten, Ozlem] At: 8 April Turkish badly.

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One professor has said that when he tried to speak Turkish to the students they stamped and yelled until he changed back into German. Gleissberg and Arndt, opposing this view, stressed the problems of not being able to establish personal contact with the students, of finding adequate interpreters, and of never being sure of the accuracy of the translations. Furthermore, consecutive interpreting made experimental lectures like those in chemistry very inconvenient ibid. Nissen gives a more positive account: In contrast to what one might have expected, translation as a method in lectures in German was received positively both by the professors and students.

The professor had to use clear and simple sentences. The interpreter translated not every sentence, but every set of connected ideas. The speaker could make use of the time waiting for the interpreter in order to prepare for the next point. Gradually, professors and translators became accustomed to this, especially the need for concise expression, so there was no real waste of time. And when some professors started to teach in Turkish even before the time stipulated in their contracts, while students welcomed the eagerness and hard work in learning Turkish, they also tactfully indicated that they benefited more from the translation method.

One can also assume that different disciplines raised different expectations and problems. These translation processes occurred in combination with other social and cultural reforms in a country that was itself experiencing an extensive translation and transformation process. Needless to say, such situations are not unique to the postmodern and postcolonial world; different types of encounters, interactions and exchanges as a result of human displacements have happened everywhere for different reasons and under various circumstances.

However, Turkey in the s and s was a special, singular example. The cultural encounter between Turkish and exiled German scholars gave birth to a host of distinct yet interrelated translation processes. It was, indeed, this loss itself, especially the linguistic loss, which necessitated translation and thus enabled the transformation of both sides.

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The Turkish higher education system specifically, and Turkish culture more Downloaded By: [Berk Albachten, Ozlem] At: 8 April generally, also underwent a fundamental translation and transformation process as a result of this cultural encounter. Not only was the curriculum changed and modern scientific and teaching methods introduced to Turkish students, but a whole new mentality and culture influenced an entire generation in the first decades of the Turkish Republic, and the legacy can still be seen in Turkey today.

Translation used in the classroom as a medium between the professors and their Turkish students, translation used as a tool to create and enrich a modern scientific language, and literary translations from Western classics were all components of a wider translation project.

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She started to work on this historical novel about Vienna in English and a first draft of the manuscript was finished by All rights reserved. The historical novel became one of the most popular literary genres amongst exiled writers. The flood of European emigrants that overwhelmed New York among them Friderike Zweig and some lecture invitations led him to Brazil, where he felt blessed by the beauty of its nature and the warmth of its people. Four of the five actors — Lucie Mannheim, exceptionally, made her debut on the West End stage ahead of the others - benefited from the existence of refugee theatres in North London that operated largely in German. Editors: Charmian Brinson and Richard Dove.

It also demonstrates that translation is never a unidirectional process: it is multidirectional and multilayered, changing all the subjects involved. Notes 1. A body of research exists on the exiled professors in Turkey. However, the stories of the professors vary. Although fewer in number, there were some Swiss, French, British and Italian experts. Translation Studies 6. It is almost impossible to list all the names of the German emigrants who came to Turkey in the s and s.

See especially Hirsch, Neumark and Widmann, whose accounts were also translated into Turkish. Arndt was among the 20 professors who came to Istanbul in The bureau published over 1, books between and , half of which were produced between and , when the bureau was still under the single-party regime and thus reflected government policies. Of translations accomplished in the first three years, 39 were from ancient Greek, 38 from French, 10 from German, eight from English, six from Latin, five from Eastern and Islamic Classics, two from Russian and one from Scandinavian literature.

Und es war auch eine Zeit, wo von einem Tag auf den anderen die Monatsnamen abgeschafft wurden und durch neue ersetzt wurden.

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This volume focuses on the contribution of German-speaking refugees from Nazism to the performing arts in Britain, evaluating their role in. This volume focuses on the contribution of German-speaking refugees from Nazism to the performing arts in Britain, evaluating their role in broadcasting, theatre.

Das mehrfach, und das erfuhr man dann aus der Zeitung. Und wehe man hatte die Zeitung nicht gelesen. Schwartz in law. In later years, all these interpreters were to become distinguished professors in their fields.

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