If international comparable data are not available then a comparison with countries in the European Union EU 1 is included if available. Life satisfaction scores have not recovered to pre-economic downturn levels for more than half of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD countries, although all countries except Greece have shown an increase in GDP per capita. And Evans, J. Many people, including organisations such as the Legatum Institute and the OECD, now recognise that economic indicators do not provide the whole picture of how societies were impacted by the economic downturn 2.
The idea that GDP or on a more individual level, income does not relate to life satisfaction was first put forward by R. Although people with higher income generally have higher life satisfaction, over time an increase in income beyond a certain point does not improve life satisfaction scores. This argument holds true at the national level as well as individually. Easterlin found that in the USA and across Europe, there was little or no trend of improved life satisfaction over many years of increasing GDP per capita.
Life satisfaction is one of the 41 measures of national well-being. Figure 1 clearly shows that those countries with a lower GDP per capita report lower life satisfaction scores than countries with a higher GDP per capita. In , the countries reporting the highest and lowest GDP per capita were the same as in The period to encompasses the economic downturn which started in Each country in the OECD was affected differently by the downturn and so responded to the challenges differently. The OECD report, Society at a Glance , considers data for a variety of social indicators, from unemployment and health to life satisfaction and tolerance, to provide a fuller picture of the social situation in OECD countries after the downturn.
Using updated life satisfaction data, Figure 2 shows that for over half of the OECD countries, life satisfaction has still not recovered to pre-downturn levels. However, all of these countries except Greece have shown an increase in GDP per capita. The differences in these two measures over time illustrate why it is necessary to look at a whole range of measures when considering national well-being.
Seven countries showed an increase in life satisfaction, seven showed no change, and 20 showed a decrease between and Download this chart Image. However, life satisfaction scores remained broadly flat, at 5. Rural Poland is recognised as having higher levels of poverty than urban areas.
This book examines the efficiency and effectiveness of economic policies in Europe, and explores the implications for social equity. It argues for an integrated . Recensione del volume: Institutions for Social Well-Being: Alternatives for Europe ◊. COSTABILE L. (ed.) Vito Tanzi*. 1. - Introduction. Some cynic is reported to.
It may be that some young Poles feel there are few prospects for them within Poland Szczerbiak, This apparent lack of opportunity, together with growing inequality, may be impacting upon the life satisfaction of the Polish people, despite the growth of the economy as a whole. Life satisfaction scores have also fallen over this period, from 6.
Chile saw the greatest improvement in life satisfaction scores 5. This increase may be a reflection of a number of different factors: statistics from the OECD show that public social expenditure increased from 8. In addition, there was a presidential election in Slovakia similarly saw a large improvement in life satisfaction scores 5.
Why plans marketing negative? Hundreds of billions of euros have been used by the European governments to bail out dozens of private banks In the wake of the crisis, hundreds of billions of euros have been used by the European governments to bail out dozens of private banks. Let us unify and make the world more beauifull: Which Flower are You? Ursula von der Leyen revealed her new European Commission on 10th September I am not so sure it is revived as much as it it rediscovered.
At the same time, trust in government rose by 12 percentage points between and , OECD, Iceland, Switzerland and Denmark had the highest life satisfaction scores in at 7. Since , despite cuts in government expenditure in Iceland, benefit payments have not been cut, and income inequality has fallen.
Furthermore, OECD figures show that since Iceland has reported a 2 percentage point increase in its trust in government score. The experiences of these selected countries illustrate that there are many factors contributing to their average life satisfaction scores, from the structure of the labour market and financial inequality to social freedoms and trust in political systems.
These include areas such as health, education and skills, personal finance, and the environment. The rest of this report looks at the measures presented in each of these domains and identifies comparable data sources, where available, for OECD countries. International data are available for 2 of the measures using alternative measures from a different source, while EU data are included for 1 measure. There is more information in Comparison of National Well-being measures and international measures This was slightly higher than the OECD average of 6.
The highest-ranked countries were Denmark, Iceland and Switzerland 7. The countries that had the largest proportion of people reporting that they were completely, very or fairly happy were Iceland Korea had the lowest proportion of people reporting that they were completely, very or fairly happy According to the —12 European Quality of Life Survey, over 8 in 10 This was higher than the EU—28 average of The highest-ranking countries were Denmark and the Netherlands, where over 9 in 10 Comparable international data are available for 1 of these measures using an alternative measure from a different source.
For the remaining 2 measures an EU comparison is shown. View table Download this table. People aged 18 and over were asked to rate their satisfaction with their family life on the International Social Survey in In Great Britain, over 9 in 10 This was similar to Poland Iceland had the highest proportion of people completely, very or fairly satisfied with family life The selected countries are OECD countries that were included in this survey.
On the —12 European Quality of Life Survey, people aged 16 and over were asked to rate their satisfaction with their social life out of In the UK the average rating of satisfaction was 7.
This was lower than the EU—28 average of 7. The country with the highest average rating was Denmark 8. On the same survey, people aged 16 and over were asked who would give them support if they needed advice about a serious personal or family matter. In the UK, This was lower than the EU—28 average of The highest-ranking country was Slovakia Comparable international data are available for 3 of the measures using alternative measures from different sources.
The reference year is with the exception of: for the United States; for Australia; for Japan; for Chile and New Zealand. In , a third This was similar for Denmark The highest proportion of people reporting a long-standing illness or health problem was in Finland According to data from the World Health Organisation, males in the UK had an estimated 69 healthy life years1 at birth in Females in the UK had an estimated 72 healthy life years at birth in Japan was the highest-ranking country for both male and females 72 and 78 healthy life years respectively.
Hungary was the lowest-ranking country for males 61 healthy life years , while Turkey was the lowest-ranking country for females 67 healthy life years. Comparable international data is available for 3 of these measures using alternative measures from a different source and 2 measures have an EU comparison. Data are not available for Norway and Switzerland. In , the harmonised unemployment rate 1 for the UK was 6. This was the same rate as the United States and a similar rate to the Czech Republic and Australia 6. The countries with the largest harmonised unemployment rate were Greece Figure 6: Harmonised unemployment rate 1 , OECD countries 2 Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Notes: Harmonised unemployment rates define the unemployed as people of working age who are without work, are available for work, and have taken specific steps to find work.
The uniform application of this definition results in estimates of unemployment rates that are more internationally comparable than estimates based on national definitions of unemployment. This indicator is measured in numbers of unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force and it is seasonally adjusted.
The labour force is defined as the total number of unemployed people plus those in civilian employment.
In , just over three-quarters This was similar to Turkey Mexico had the highest proportion of people who were satisfied with their main job This was the same as proportion as Austria and Iceland. A special Eurobarometer survey run from April to May looked at cultural access and participation. According to the European Quality of Life Survey, The highest proportion of people who took part in sports or physical exercise at least once a week were in Finland and Sweden Comparable international data are available for 1 of these measures using an alternative measure from a different source and 3 measures have an EU comparison.
According to the World Gallup Poll, over three-quarters This was higher than the OECD average of People in Norway felt the safest Research has shown that living in an urban area with green spaces has a long-lasting positive impact on people's mental well-being and generally beneficial to public health 1. Therefore having ease of access to them is important.
Just over 9 in 10 The highest-ranking country was Denmark Looking at whether people feel close to other people in the area where they live can give a sense of whether they feel a sense of belonging to their neighbourhood.
According to the European Quality of Life Survey in —12, The highest-ranked country was Cyprus On the European Quality of Life Survey in —12, Finland had the highest proportion of people who rated their satisfaction with their accommodation as 7 or more out of 10 Latvia had the lowest proportion of people rating their satisfaction with their accommodation as 7 or more out of 10 Wealth values are expressed in USD. Disposable income is the amount of money that households have available for spending and saving after direct taxes such as income tax and council tax have been accounted for, but before housing costs.
It includes earnings from employment, private pensions and investments as well as cash benefits provided by the state. Equivalisation adjusts the income to take into account the size and composition of the household. In , over a fifth This was lower than the estimated EU—28 average of The countries with the highest proportion of households reporting great difficulty or difficulty in making ends meet were Greece In , nearly a third Swaan, European welfare states are fundamentally national in character, and within the EU, social policy is primarily a national responsibility.
There exists as of today no European social law on the basis of which individual citizens can claim benefits from Brussels; there exists no direct taxation or social contributions to EU which can finance social welfare; and there hardly exists any welfare bureaucracy in the EU. But a social dimension is clearly evident in EU policies on structural funds for agriculture, social development, regions ; in decisions on coordination of social rights for people moving between member states including EEA members, as part of the territory of the four freedoms ; and in the directives imposing minimum standards for health and security at work places, working hours, and minimum standards for maternity leave and benefits.
These policies covering 15 sometimes 18 nations are already examples of more advanced coordination and harmonization across state boundaries than what exists in any other region in the world. Whether this should be seen as europeanization on the way to globalization, or as a European regional response to the challenge of globalization, or rather simply as a stepping stone towards creating a European state entity, is an open question.
Whatever the answer, Leibfried and Pierson argue convincingly that the status of the national welfare states is affected by the process of European integration: both the sovereignty i.
National social policy is, they argue, steadily being more European, although there is no unidirectional nor any unidimensional development. European coordination of national welfare schemes seems more likely than any immediate harmonization of national schemes on a European wide level - not only because of the current lack of will at the European or inter-governmental level for such action, but also because of the institutional differences, complexities, and legal entrenchments.