Urs Feller. Shoot sodium exclusion in salt stressed barley Hordeum vulgare L. Varanya Kittipol Zhesi He Shuo Ding Xin-Yuan Liu Venkategowda Ramegowda Muthappa Senthil-Kumar. Bulat Kuluev Elena Mikhaylova Most Cited Articles The most cited articles published since , extracted from Scopus.
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Special Issues. Lukas Schreiber Kosala Ranathunge Christian Wilhelm Maria Mittag. Dev T Britto Christian Wilhelm PlumX Metrics. Below is a recent list of — articles that have had the most social media attention. The Plum Print next to each article shows the relative activity in each of these categories of metrics: Captures, Mentions, Social Media and Citations. Go here to learn more about PlumX Metrics. Genome-wide identification of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. Elevated CO induces a global metabolic change in basil Ocimum basilicum L.
Life Sciences Plant Sciences. Plant Ecophysiology Free Preview. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book In the last decade, enormous progress has been made on the physiology of plant roots, including on a wide range of molecular aspects. Reprinted from Plant and Soil , Show all. Table of contents 14 chapters Table of contents 14 chapters Root nitrogen acquisition and assimilation Pages Miller, A.
Phosphate acquisition Pages Raghothama, K. The roots of carnivorous plants Pages Adlassnig, Wolfram et al. Roles of aquaporins in root responses to irrigation Pages Vandeleur, Rebecca et al. When a plant is under dense vegetation, the presence of other vegetation nearby will cause the plant to avoid lateral growth and experience an increase in upward shoot, as well as downward root growth. In order to escape shade, plants adjust their root architecture, most notably by decreasing the length and amount of lateral roots emerging from the primary root. Experimentation of mutant variants of Arabidospis thaliana found that plants sense the Red to Far Red light ratio that enters the plant through photoreceptors known as phytochromes.
The phytochrome PhyA that senses this Red to Far Red light ratio is localized in both the root system as well as the shoot system of plants, but through knockout mutant experimentation, it was found that root localized PhyA does not sense the light ratio, whether directly or axially, that leads to changes in the lateral root architecture. Research has also found that phytochrome completes these architectural changes through the manipulation of auxin distribution in the root of the plant. This stabilized transcription factor is then able to be transported to the roots of the plant through the phloem , where it proceeds to induce its own transcription as a way to amplify its signal.
In the roots of the plant HY5 functions to inhibit an auxin response factor known as ARF19, a response factor responsible for the translation of PIN3 and LAX3, two well known auxin transporting proteins. With this complex manipulation of Auxin transport in the roots, lateral root emergence will be inhibited in the roots and the root will instead elongate downwards, promoting vertical plant growth in an attempt to avoid shade.
Research of Arabidopsis has led to the discovery of how this auxin mediated root response works. In an attempt to discover the role that phytochrome plays in lateral root development, Salisbury et al. Salisbury et al. To do this, Salisbury et al. From these research, Salisbury et al. To do this, they took Arabidopsis plants, grew them in agar gel , and exposed the roots and shoots to separate sources of light. From here, they altered the different wavelengths of light the shoot and root of the plants were receiving and recorded the lateral root density, amount of lateral roots, and the general architecture of the lateral roots.
To identify the function of specific photoreceptors, proteins, genes, and hormones, they utilized various Arabidopsis knockout mutants and observed the resulting changes in lateral roots architecture. Through their observations and various experiments, van Gelderen et al.
A true root system consists of a primary root and secondary roots or lateral roots. The roots, or parts of roots, of many plant species have become specialized to serve adaptive purposes besides the two primary functions [ clarification needed ] , described in the introduction. The distribution of vascular plant roots within soil depends on plant form, the spatial and temporal availability of water and nutrients, and the physical properties of the soil.
The deepest roots are generally found in deserts and temperate coniferous forests; the shallowest in tundra, boreal forest and temperate grasslands. The deepest observed living root, at least 60 metres below the ground surface, was observed during the excavation of an open-pit mine in Arizona, USA. Some roots can grow as deep as the tree is high. The majority of roots on most plants are however found relatively close to the surface where nutrient availability and aeration are more favourable for growth. Rooting depth may be physically restricted by rock or compacted soil close below the surface, or by anaerobic soil conditions.
Certain plants, namely Fabaceae , form root nodules in order to associate and form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria called rhizobia.
Due to the high energy required to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, the bacteria take carbon compounds from the plant to fuel the process. In return, the plant takes nitrogen compounds produced from ammonia by the bacteria. Plants can also interact with one another in their environment through their root systems. Studies have demonstrated that plant-plant interaction occurs among root systems via the soil as a medium. For instance, Novoplanksy and his students at Ben-Gurion University in Israel tested whether plants growing in ambient conditions would change their behavior if a nearby plant was exposed to drought conditions.
His team wondered if plants can communicate to their neighbors of nearby stressful environmental conditions. A second plant's roots were then placed between two pots, such that half its roots were in the same pot as Plant 1 Pot B , and half its roots in a new pot Pot C. A third plant was chained to the first two plants, in which plant 3's roots were split between sharing Pot C with the second plant's roots and a new Pot D, and so on.
In the study, six pea plants Pisum sativum were chained together in seven pots.
Drought was stimulated by adding mannitol, a sugar commonly used to initiate drought responses in plant studies, to Pot A such that only half the roots of the plant 1 were subjected to drought conditions. The other six pots remained well watered and weren't exposed to mannitol. After adding mannitol to the soil of Pot A, that plant 1's stomata closed within fifteen minutes even though half its roots remained in the well-watered soil of Pot B.
This observation suggested that a signal from the drought-induced roots in Pot A travelled to the non-stressed roots of the same plant, which caused them to release a drought signal into Pot B's soil. Stomatal closing at the leaves of the other plant neighbors in the remaining pots was also measured, albeit at a longer time after the mannitol treatment in Pot A. These results implied that the drought signal was relayed to plants five pots away from the stress origin.
Neighboring plants placed in separate pots directly next to Pot A showed no changes in stomatal aperture, which confirmed that the drought signal spread through the roots and soil, not through the air as a volatile chemical signal. As of now, the chemical signal is unknown, as is the physiological mechanism by which this response occurs. The term root crops refers to any edible underground plant structure, but many root crops are actually stems, such as potato tubers. Edible roots include cassava , sweet potato , beet , carrot , rutabaga , turnip , parsnip , radish , yam and horseradish.
Spices obtained from roots include sassafras , angelica , sarsaparilla and licorice. Sugar beet is an important source of sugar. Yam roots are a source of estrogen compounds used in birth control pills.
In the last decade, enormous progress has been made on the physiology of plant roots, including on a wide range of molecular aspects. Much of that progress. PDF | On Jan 7, , Hans Lambers and others published Root Physiology – from Gene to Function.
The fish poison and insecticide rotenone is obtained from roots of Lonchocarpus spp. Important medicines from roots are ginseng , aconite , ipecac , gentian and reserpine. Several legumes that have nitrogen-fixing root nodules are used as green manure crops, which provide nitrogen fertilizer for other crops when plowed under.
Specialized bald cypress roots, termed knees, are sold as souvenirs, lamp bases and carved into folk art. Native Americans used the flexible roots of white spruce for basketry. Tree roots can heave and destroy concrete sidewalks and crush or clog buried pipes. Trees stabilize soil on a slope prone to landslides.
The root hairs work as an anchor on the soil. Vegetative propagation of plants via cuttings depends on adventitious root formation. Hundreds of millions of plants are propagated via cuttings annually including chrysanthemum , poinsettia , carnation , ornamental shrubs and many houseplants. Roots can also protect the environment by holding the soil to reduce soil erosion.
poztgumefacu.gq This is especially important in areas such as sand dunes.